to justify land /5

an experiment in american associations

In April 2016, Honduran activist Berta Isabel Cáceres Flores was murdered in connection with the  Indigenous and populist resistance against the construction of the Agua Zarca dam under the ownership of hydro-power company Desarrollos Energéticos, SA (DESA). The dam was to be constructed over Lenca territory. While Finish and Dutch funders withdrew from the project after international pressures and reporting, the Agua Zarca dam continued construction under contract with Canadian hydro-power engineering firm Hydrosys – based in Montreal, Sherbrooke, and Vancouver – who are responsible for the design and construction of the Gualcarque Waterpower Project. Berta Cáceres was representing the Lenca resistance to the construction of the hydro-electric dam over the Gualcarque River because the Lenca community was not “meaningfully consulted about the project, putting the Honduran state in violation of International Labour Organization Convention 169 on the Rights of Indigenous People, of which it is signatory” (Jackie McVicar, “Indigenous Rights Under Attack: Canadian economic and political interests over human rights“, Canadian Dimension).

Prior to the 1990s all energy generation in Central America was conducted by state owned electrical companies, but in the 1990’s most Central American nations changed their laws to allow private energy investment, with heavy pressure from the structural adjustment loans promoted by the World Bank and IDB. After privatization, electricity cost to consumers skyrocketed.

(Annie Bird, “The Agua Zarca Dam and Lenca Communities in Honduras: Transnational Investment Leads to Violence against and Criminalization of Indigenous Communities“. 2011.)

cantos for other sites

with usura
acquisition of Honduran land through Finnish investment
DESA purchasing up land through intimidation, coercion

Dec. 27, 2011
purchase of tracts of land (illegal)
following mayoral visitations to convince public of dams

1920s attempts by the family to purchase land from farmers
1942 Santa Barbara tries to acquire land in Rio Blanco
deaths of Rio Blanco residents defending Gualcarque

DESA: Desarrollos Energéticos, SA
no corporate ownership information available,
“The company was founded in 2008 and is based in Tegucigalpa, Honduras.”
The website you were trying to reach is temporarily unavailable.

a matter of transparency

(ir relevant / people also viewed:
Falcon Ingeniera, Ingenieros Consultores y Constructores Electromecanicos (ICCE), Grupo Terra, ENERCOM, Energia Renovable S.A de C.V, Grupo POPA)

DESA and SINOHYDRO taking land not even under the tracts
Chinese state-owned hydropower:
Benin, Bolivia, Congo, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Equatorial Guinea,
Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Honduras, Indonesia,
Iran, Ivory Coast, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali,
Mexico, Myanmar, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan,
Serbia, Sudan, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia

SINOHYDRO invested in Congo copper and cobalt mining
Honduran dam, Patuca III Hydroelectric Project, financier: China Exim Bank
destroying plantations of coffee, orange, banana, corn and bean,
SINOHYDRO replaced by Guatemalan COPRECA

a mountain into gravel

DESA/SINOHYDRO providing vehicles for Honduran military police
The shooting of Tomas Garcia, father of his son Allan Garcia
“FMO is shocked by the news that Nelson García, another COPINH member, has been murdered in Honduras. After the recent violent death of Berta Cáceres,”

Privatisation of land (and all things of it, that is ‘RESOURCE’)
World Bank & International Development Bank
overriding land tracts

back to the dam:
FMO Entrepreneurial Development Bank
Total FMO financing for Agua Zarca, $15 million USD (EUR 0.03 MLN)
Signing date: 10-03-2015
& see again, the Dutchified commanders: 2593 HW The Hague, The Netherlands

“DESA is committed to develop and manage the project in accordance with the IFC Performance Standards and with an active approach toward the local communities. This has led to the development of a tailor-made program by an international consultant which enables DESA to profit from their experience and be better equipped to manage the social side of this project.”

“undertook TWO DUE DILIGENCE TRIPS before contracting to better understand the environmental and social impacts of the project”

FMO (Financierings Maatschappij voor Ontwikkelingslanden) (in coordination with Finnfund) and CABEI (Central American Bank for Economic Integration). FMO is financing the project with USD 15 million)
[Frequently Asked Questions on The Agua Zarca Run-of-the-River Hydroelectric Generation Project]

“land required for the project on the left hand bank was purchased from 16 individuals through the willing-buyer-willing-seller approach” [FAQ]

15 june FMO supports development of green financial products in costa rica
27 may FMO finalizes review of projects in Honduras
09 may FMO seeks to exit Agua Zarca


essential problem: land ownership,
own to construct dam,
own to construct condominium
own to construct state
state controls rights to land to own the land to own the state

Valle del Angeles Y San Ramon N La Estancia N La Leona N
construction justifiable in all N

but appeased if purchased
that land tracts are valid




“Water, land and corn—DESA get out of our country.” (Photo: COPINH, sourced from “In Wake of Cáceres Murder, Dam Funders Pull Out—But Repression Continues“, Deirdre Fulton.)